This project chronicles the history and heritage of East Baltimore’s Historic American Indian “Reservation” in the 20th century.

In 2016, Ashley Minner (Lumbee) began to formalize a very brief walking tour of the American Indian community of East Baltimore. In conversation with her elders, she came to realize there were many sites of significance that are no longer recognizable on the landscape or prominent in public memory. Through continued conversation with elders, other community members and stakeholders, archival research, generous support from funders, and brilliant design, this project was realized and made public in 2021.

Please note that the information presented here is incomplete and subject to change because the community is always changing and this research is ongoing. Dates reflect occupation of sites, not lifespans of businesses or organizations. Individual homes of Indian people and families — perhaps the most important part of “the reservation” — have not been included. Mapping these would be a complex and massive undertaking and we haven’t quite figured out how to do it, but we may yet.

contact

Press & General Enquiries
hello@baltimorereservation.com

Instagram
@baltimorereservation

Resources & Downloads

Download the official Guide to Indigenous Baltimore mobile app:

Download on the Apple App Store.Download on the Google Play app store.

Physical copies of the printed booklet and map will soon be available to pick up at the Baltimore American Indian Center at 113 S. Broadway, Baltimore, MD. Download the full PDF here.

Ashley Minner standing in front of the Baltimore American Indian Center.
An Lumbee man sitting in a restaurant.
A Lumbee family standing in the Baltimore American Indian Center community garden.
Two Lumbee women standing together.
A Lumbee woman examines a map of East Baltimore.

Many people, communities, and organizations have contributed to this project over the years. We thank each and every one of you for your help and support.

Thank You to Our Sponsors:

Credits

  • Concept, Research, & Writing
    Ashley Minner
  • Branding
    Julia Evins & Katie Lively
  • Web Design, Development, & Motion Design
    Katie Lively
  • App Design & Development
    Dr. Elizabeth Rule
  • Print Booklet Design
    Julia Evins
  • Print Map Design & Illustration
    Robert Cronan
  • Present-Day Site Photography
    Sean Scheidt

The historical photographs and documents on this website are displayed for educational purposes only. Thank you to those who have generously provided images for this project.

Special Thanks

  • Dr. Louise Akerson
  • Rafael Alvarez
  • Sarah Arnold (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Joe Basile
  • Adriana Bowen Herrera (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Claude Brown
  • Rosie Bowen (Lumbee)
  • James Bowen (Lumbee)
  • Hannah Brancato
  • Dr. Elsa Barkley-Brown
  • Peter Bruun
  • Dr. Chad Buterbaugh
  • Gerald Butler (Lumbee)
  • Marilyn Butler (Lumbee)
  • Eric Byrd (Lumbee)
  • Sonja Cendak
  • Sonja Cendak
  • James “Jimbo” Chavis (Lumbee)
  • Jovina Chavis (Lumbee)
  • Mary Chavis
  • Ruthie Chavis (Lumbee)
  • Tiffany Chavis (Lumbee)
  • Vernon Chavis (Lumbee)
  • George Ciscle
  • Phil Civitarese
  • Jessica Clark (Lumbee)
  • Kenneth Clark
  • E. Keith Colston (Lumbee / Tuscarora)
  • Dean Tonto Cox Sr. (Lumbee)
  • Linda Cox (Lumbee)
  • Jennifer Cosham
  • Rev. Dr. Michael Cummings (Lumbee)
  • Jody Cummings (Lumbee / Coharie)
  • Tina Cummings (Lumbee)
  • Amy Davis
  • Lauren Davis
  • Beanie Dial (Lumbee)
  • Annalisa Dias
  • Caprice Di Liello
  • Demian DinéYazhi´ (Diné)
  • Rev. Bob Dodson
  • Jonathan Dudley
  • Jeremy Durkin
  • Estrellita Edwell
  • Dr. Elaine Eff
  • Chris Emmanuel (Lumbee)
  • Norman Emmanuel (Lumbee)
  • Jill Fannon
  • Michelle Faulkner-Forson
  • Janet Felsten
  • Dr. Katharine Fernstrom
  • Mattie “Ty” Fields (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Psyche Williams-Forson
  • Dr. Sarah Fouts
  • Cynthia Gayle Revels Haas (Lumbee)
  • Rachel Glaser
  • Rick Glaser
  • Susan Graham
  • Alonzo Gray
  • Sherry Jacobs Haber (Lumbee)
  • Siobhan Hagan
  • Tammy Hale (Lumbee)
  • Rev. Redell Hammonds (Lumbee)
  • Carl Harding (Lumbee)
  • Nora Howell
  • Aleshia Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Annabelle Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Chelsea Hunt (Lumbee)
  • DC “Slim” Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Hal Hunt Sr. (Lumbee)
  • Howard Redell Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Jeanette Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Larry Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Milton Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Tina Hunt (Lumbee)
  • Cinder Hypki
  • Will Isom
  • Dellie James
  • Jeanette Walker Jones (Lumbee)
  • Thomas Jones (Lumbee)
  • Devyn Kelly
  • Dr. Nicole King
  • Dr. Stan Knick
  • Dr. Ryan Koons
  • Suzy Kopf
  • Dr. Liz Lerman
  • Mary Helen Lewis (Lumbee)
  • Stanton Lewis (Lumbee)
  • Kim Locklear-Hodges (Lumbee)
  • Carl “Mr. Charlie” Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Donald Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Earl Vernon Locklear (Lumbee)
  • James Earl Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Jennifer Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Jessica Markey Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Kirby Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Lawrence Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Lizzie Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Maurice Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Roger Locklear (Lumbee)
  • Lindsey Loeper
  • Dr. Malinda Maynor Lowery (Lumbee)
  • Dottye Markowitz
  • Stan Markowitz
  • Dr. Diana Marsh
  • Edward Mattison
  • Kathleen Maynard (Cheyenne River Sioux)
  • Roy Maynor (Coharie / Lumbee)
  • Ryan McCoy
  • Kathy Maynor McKown (Lumbee / Coharie)
  • Minnie S. Maynor (Lumbee)
  • Carol Meekins (Lumbee)
  • Emily Minner (Lumbee)
  • Frieda Sampson Minner (Lumbee)
  • Richard Minner
  • Dr. Clifford Murphy
  • Beth Nance
  • Michael Nephew (Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians)
  • Chris Newman (Choptico Band of Piscataway Indians)
  • Rico Newman (Choptico Band of Piscataway Indians)
  • Dan Nicholas (Munsee-Delaware)
  • Sophie Nolan
  • Cara Ober
  • Bradley “Brownie” Oxendine (Lumbee)
  • Edna Oxendine
  • Rebecca Holmes Oxendine (Lumbee)
  • Robert “Doc” Oxendine (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Michael Pahn
  • Dr. Barry Lee Pearson
  • Missy Pearson
  • Tracie Pouliot
  • Reneice Jacobs Ramsey (Lumbee)
  • Barry Richardson (Haliwa Saponi)
  • Adam Richardson (Haliwa Saponi)
  • Dr. Erica Blue Doxzen Roberts (Lumbee)
  • Rhiannon Rodriquez
  • Alecia Cowins Sampson (Lumbee / Cheyenne River Sioux)
  • Dorothy Sampson (Lumbee)
  • James A. Sampson Sr. (Lumbee)
  • Orlen Hayes Sampson (Lumbee)
  • Clayton Sarvis (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Beth Saunders
  • Debbie Searfoss-Warble
  • Allan Scheidt
  • Dr. Joyce J. Scott
  • Dr. Mary Corbin Sies
  • Rosy Simas (Seneca)
  • Andrew Simonet
  • Allan Snow (Mohawk)
  • Allen T. Snow (Mohawk)
  • Chris Snow (Mohawk)
  • Dr. Michelle Stefano
  • Dr. Phoebe Stein
  • Francis Stokes
  • Earlie Strickland (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Gabrielle Tayac (Piscataway Indian Nation)
  • Dr. Joby Taylor (Cherokee Nation)
  • George Thompson (Lumbee)
  • Gus Themelis
  • Peter Themelis
  • Shelvia Tobash (Lumbee)
  • Dr. Eglutė Trinkauskaitė
  • Loretta Tyler (Lumbee)
  • George Vasiliades
  • Sue Hunt Vasquez (Lumbee)
  • Tony Vasquez
  • Dra. Marta Moreno Vega
  • John Walker (Lumbee)
  • Michelle Wearins (Lumbee)
  • Dennis Zotigh (Kiowa, San Juan Pueblo, Santee Dakota)

Cindy Airey

Dr. Louise Akerson

Rafael Alvarez

Sarah Arnold (Lumbee)

Dr. Joe Basile

Adriana Bowen Herrera (Lumbee)

Dr. Claude Bowen

Rosie Bowen (Lumbee)

James Bowen (Lumbee)

Hannah Brancato

Dr. Elsa Barkley-Brown

Dr. Chad Buterbaugh

Gerald Butler (Lumbee)

Marilyn Butler (Lumbee)

Eric Byrd (Lumbee)

Sonja Cendak

James “Jimbo” Chavis (Lumbee)

Jovino Chavis (Lumbee)

Tiffany Chavis (Lumbee)

George Ciscle

Jessica Clark (Lumbee)

E. Keith Colston (Lumbee / Tuscarora)

E. Keith Colston (Lumbee / Tuscarora)

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Thank you to colleagues at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, the University of Maryland Baltimore County, the University of Maryland College Park, Alternate ROOTS, Maryland Institute College of Art, Bmore Art, Maryland Traditions, Maryland Historical Trust, the American Folklore Society, Baltimore Heritage, the Baltimore City Historical Society, Baltimore National Heritage Area, the Peale Center for Baltimore History and Architecture, the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, and the United States Department of Art and Culture.

Thank you to all archivists, librarians, and stewards of our history, and in particular those who serve at the Baltimore American Indian Center, Baltimore City Archives, Baltimore City Department of Planning Commission for Historical and Architectural Preservation, Baltimore County Public Library, East Baltimore Church of God, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Hornbake Library at University of Maryland at College Park, Johns Hopkins Sheridan Library, Maryland Historical Society, Maryland State Archives, Museum of the Southeast American Indian at University of North Carolina at Pembroke, South Broadway Baptist Church, Special Collections of the Albin O. Kuhn Library of University of Maryland Baltimore County, and Special Collections of the Wilson Library at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.